Einfuehrung in die Volkswirtschaftslehre

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Einfuehrung in die Volkswirtschaftslehre. Prof.Dr. Jingbei Hu CDHK, Shanghai, 2008 WS. Was ist die VWL VWL = economics = Mikro- + Makrooekonomik + viel anders Z.B.: Institutionelle Oekonomie - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Einfuehrung in die Volkswirtschaftslehre

    Prof.Dr. Jingbei HuCDHK, Shanghai, 2008 WS

  • Was ist die VWL VWL = economics = Mikro- + Makrooekonomik + viel andersZ.B.: Institutionelle OekonomieViele Zweige resultieren aus Mikro- und Makrooekonomik, z.B. Arbeitsekonomie, Oekonomie der oeffentlichen Finanzen, Landwirtschaftsoekonomie.

  • Was ist die zentrale Fragestellung der VWL Wie geht die Bevoelkerung reicher oder: Wie werden die Allokationen der knappen Resourcen zwischen verschiede-nen und gegeneinandergestellten Verwendungen gemacht, damit Menschen ihre Wuensche am besten erfuellen koennten

  • Wie wird die Wuenschserfuellung gemessen?

    In VWL: am Reichtum konkretere Form: an Geld

    In der VWL ist das Standardword: Nutzen

  • Indikatoren der Reichtum Wert-Indikatoren: BIP (GDP) BIP pro Kopf Einkommensverteilung: Gini-Koeffizient Realindikatoren: Lebenserwartung, Saeuglingssterb- lichkeit, Analpabetenquote bei den Erwachsenen, Teil der Menschen mit sauberer Wasserversorgung

  • Wert-Indikatoren BIP pro Kopf

    Langfristiges Wachstum des GDP pro Kopfweltweit zwischen 1800 und 2000 und zwischen 1950-2003

    (s. GDP per Kopf, 1820-2000 GDP per Kopf, 1950-2003)

  • China: Wachstum an BIP pro Kopf 1952-2006

    Steigende Verhaeltnisse zwischen Zunahme an Kapital und an Bevoelkerung 1952-2006

  • Chart1

    136.1406526617

    153.8289646603

    156.5494990242

    163.6990014803

    184.3967631683

    188.9000094844

    223.54776872

    238.4755582242

    237.3069929331

    174.2694388129

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    175.3816466336

    202.5086518618

    231.480152578

    249.3538448265

    229.1512303955

    213.9636221894

    243.4943799294

    282.720025598

    294.4216556475

    297.9021375153

    314.1359189411

    314.640365779

    336.003906652

    325.6529365458

    345.6510136116

    381

    404.241

    430.5233325

    447.4909074675

    480.8384130276

    525.4866624391

    597.4930036933

    668.6723951328

    716.9387275823

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    903.9181048163

    973.5729483871

    1098.3487817807

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    1518.0897899882

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    2037.7949787937

    2192.567575182

    2357.0815808207

    2554.5605596096

    2792.8067756533

    3055.6898955647

    3351.5

    3706.67

    GDP1978

    GDP 1952-20061978

    2007www.hujingbei.net

    () I II (

    1978,1978,%%%%%1978,1978,1978,1978,%

    MN 1949-2004 20052007105E=D/10 1949-2004 2005200772 1949-2004 2005200772H=G/F*1002007721977J=H/E 1978 JI/E"OL=J*KM=L N={[(L(t+1)-L(t)]/L(t)}*100

    ABCDEFGHIJKLMN

    1952151120.002.00692.2153.722.2011.10136.141511.471511

    195315905.1723.002.30834.3198.323.7710.33153.831589.6815905.17

    195416312.6324.792.48878.3226.925.8310.42156.551631.4216312.63

    1955190916.9920.322.03934.9221.523.6911.66163.701908.67190916.99

    1956224017.3820.502.051034.2257.624.9112.15184.402240.48224017.38

    19572066-7.7723.232.321101.9280.025.4110.94188.902066.322066-7.77

    19584338109.9517.241.721291.2432.033.4619.41223.554338.344338109.95

    195910025131.0810.191.021451.3621.742.8442.04238.4810025.2110025131.08

    1960-19800-297.50-4.57-0.461508.0575.038.13-83.44237.31-19799.80-19800-297.50

    19619928-150.143.780.381275.2274.621.5356.97174.279927.779928-150.14

    1962914-90.7926.992.701176.4178.115.145.61162.97914.16914-90.79

    1963108018.1033.333.331293.1265.320.526.16175.381079.58108018.10

    1964178064.8927.642.761441.8350.324.308.79202.511780.08178064.89

    1965231329.9628.382.841629.2462.128.369.99231.482313.47231329.96

    1966296528.1826.222.621827.3569.831.1811.89249.352965.49296528.18

    19672238-24.5525.532.551707.7425.724.939.76229.152237.502238-24.55

    19681977-11.6627.382.741708.7432.225.299.24213.961976.631977-11.66

    1969244223.5526.082.611857.7485.926.1610.03243.492442.04244223.55

    1970369451.2825.832.582207.0744.933.7513.07282.723694.26369451.28

    1971432016.9423.332.332392.5819.034.2314.67294.424320.03432016.94

    197243340.3222.162.222453.8791.132.2414.55297.904334.0743340.32

    1973508917.4320.892.092669.6903.533.8416.20314.145089.34508917.43

    1974615220.8917.481.752738.7936.134.1819.55314.646152.49615220.89

    1975771125.3215.691.572950.41062.336.0122.95336.007710.59771125.32

    1976858011.2812.661.272968.3990.133.3626.35325.658580.10858011.28

    1977994115.8612.061.213166.01098.134.6828.76345.659940.80994115.86

    19781212922.0112.001.203605.61377.938.238.231.8338112128.501212922.01

    1979125693.6411.611.164074.01474.236.1936.131.09404.2412569.42125693.64

    1980126220.4211.871.194551.31590.034.9434.829.32430.5212621.91126220.42

    19819996-20.8114.551.464901.41581.032.2632.522.34447.499995.509996-20.81

    19829782-2.1315.681.575489.21760.232.0731.920.34480.849782.369782-2.13

    19831296932.5813.291.336076.32005.033.0032.824.68525.4912969.121296932.58

    19841562320.4613.081.317164.42468.634.4634.226.15597.4915622.521562320.46

    19851786614.3614.261.438792.13386.038.5138.126.72668.6717865.651786614.36

    198617267-3.3515.571.5610132.83846.037.9637.524.08716.9417267.3117267-3.35

    198717202-0.3816.611.6611784.74322.036.6736.321.85787.1217201.8717202-0.38

    19882027717.8715.731.5714704.05495.037.3737.023.52862.0320276.632027717.87

    1989214996.0315.041.5016466.06095.037.0236.624.34883.4721499.38214996.03

    1990219231.9714.391.4418319.56444.035.1834.924.25903.9221922.68219231.97

    19912610219.0612.981.3021280.47517.035.3234.826.81973.5726101.962610219.06

    19923465532.7711.601.1625863.79636.037.2636.631.551098.3534654.803465532.77

    19934604532.8711.451.1534500.714998.043.4742.637.211237.6046045.114604532.87

    1994499938.5711.211.1246690.719260.641.2540.536.131383.7549992.82499938.57

    19955799016.0010.551.0658510.523877.040.8140.338.201518.0957989.595799016.00

    1996615466.1310.421.0468330.426867.239.3238.837.241652.8761546.24615466.13

    1997652376.0010.061.0174894.228457.638.0036.736.481788.2565237.30652376.00

    19987564815.969.140.9179003.329545.937.4036.239.611910.0075647.847564815.96

    19999018119.218.180.8282673.130701.637.1436.244.252037.7990181.159018119.21

    200010210813.237.580.7689340.932499.836.3835.346.572192.57102107.7010210813.23

    200112378921.236.950.7098592.937460.838.0036.552.522357.08123789.1812378921.23

    200215010521.266.450.65107897.642304.939.2137.958.762554.56150105.1915010521.26

    200319052426.936.010.60121730.351554.742.3541.068.222792.81190524.2619052426.93

    200422488218.035.870.59142394.262875.344.1643.273.593055.69224882.1222488218.03

    20052429808.045.890.59188692.180646.342.742.772.503351.50242969.522429808.04

    200629835922.805.280.53221170.594103.242.542.580.493706.67298358.8529835922.80

    ///[/(]

    [//]/

    197819522006

    6

    7

    8

    &L&F--&A&R&N--&P

    &L&F--&A&R&N--&P

    1511.4719961065

    1589.6838115862

    1631.4237053896

    1908.6702201029

    2240.4783804689

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    -19799.8016322202

    9927.768960409

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    1079.5778561356

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    190524.255909792

    224882.118378867

    242969.524617997

    298358.854166667

    1952-2006

    1952-2006

    Sheet1

    Sheet1

    136.1406526617

    153.8289646603

    156.5494990242

    163.6990014803

    184.3967631683

    188.9000094844

    223.54776872

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    404.241

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    2357.0815808207

    2554.5605596096

    2792.8067756533

    3055.6898955647

    3351.5

    3706.67

    GDP1978

    GDP 1952-20061978

    2007www.hujingbei.net

    ()()()() I II ()III() IV() IIIIVIIIIVV() VI () VI

    1978,1978,%1952100197810010010019781001978,1978,1978,1978%1978,1978,1978%

    PQ1949-20042007601949-20042007591949-2004200757K=J*381/1001977L=100*L(t+1)/F(t+1) 1979 LG(t)*L(t-1)/100M=K-LN=[(K-L)/K]*100O=(K+L)/2P=O Q={[(O(t+1)-O(t)]/O(t)}*100

    BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ

    1952136100.011935.65135.83136.26-0.44-0.32136.05136

    195315412.99113.1113.114240.32153.54154.11-0.57-0.37153.8315412.99

    19541571.77115.1101.814441.03156.21156.89-0.68-0.43156.551571.77

    19551644.57120.3104.515042.89163.45163.95-0.50-0.31163.701644.57

    195618412.64135.6112.716548.34184.02184.77-0.75-0.41184.4018412.64

    19571892.44138.9102.416849.52188.60189.21-0.61-0.32188.901892.44

    195822418.34164.3118.320058.57223.27223.83-0.56-0.25223.5522418.34

    19592386.68175.3106.721662.50238.13238.83-0.70-0.29238.482386.68

    1960237-0.49174.599.521862.21236.98237.63-0.65-0.27237.31237-0.49

    1961174-26.56128.173.418545.67174.12174.42-0.30-0.18174.27174-26.56

    1962163-6.48119.993.617342.75162.69163.26-0.57-0.35162.97163-6.48

    19631757.61129.0107.518145.99175.26175.50-0.24-0.14175.381757.61

    196420315.47149.0115.520853.12202.31202.71-0.40-0.20202.5120315.47

    196523114.31170.3114.324060.71231.27231.69-0.43-0.18231.4823114.31

    19662497.72183.4107.725465.38249.17249.53-0.36-0.14249.352497.72

    1967229-8.10168.691.923560.11228.98229.32-0.34-0.15229.15229-8.10

    1968214-6.63157.593.422256.15213.74214.19-0.45-0.21213.96214-6.63

    196924313.80179.1113.724363.85243.46243.53-0.07-0.03243.4924313.80

    197028316.11208.1116.127574.19282.70282.74-0.04-0.01282.7228316.11

    19712944.14216.7104.128877.25294.51294.330.180.06294.422944.14

    19722981.18219.4101.229278.22297.94297.860.080.03297.902981.18

    19733145.45231.3105.430982.46314.33313.950.380.12314.143145.45

    19743150.16231.8100.231082.64314.71314.570.130.04314.643150.16

    19753366.79247.5106.832788.24336.04335.970.080.02336.003366.79

    1976326-3.08239.896.931685.49325.76325.550.200.06325.65326-3.08

    19773466.14254.5106.233990.73345.57345.74-0.17-0.05345.653466.14

    197838110.23280.5100.0110.2110.2379381100.038138100.0038138110.23

    19794046.10297.7106.1106.1106.1417419106.1404.24404.2400.00404.244046.10

    19804316.50317.1113.0106.5106.5460463113.0430.53430.520.010.00430.524316.50

    19814473.94329.4117.5103.9103.9489492117.5447.68447.310.370.08447.494473.94

    19824817.45354.0126.2107.5107.5525528126.2480.82480.85-0.03-0.01480.844817.45

    19835259.29386.8137.9109.3109.3580583137.9525.40525.57-0.18-0.03525.495259.29

    198459713.70439.7156.8113.7113.7692695156.8597.41597.58-0.17-0.03597.4959713.70

    198566911.91492.2175.5111.9111.9853858175.5668.66668.69-0.03-0.01668.6766911.91

    19867177.22527.8188.2107.2107.2956963188.2717.04716.840.210.03716.947177.22

    19877879.79579.6206.6109.8109.811041112206.6787.15787.090.060.01787.127879.79

    19888629.52634.6226.3109.5109.513551366226.3862.20861.860.340.04862.038629.52

    19898832.49650.4231.9102.5102.515121519231.9883.54883.400.130.02883.478832.49

    19909042.31665.5237.3102.3102.316341644237.3904.11903.720.390.04903.929042.31

    19919747.71716.7255.6107.7107.718791893255.6973.84973.310.530.05973.579747.71

    1992109812.82808.8288.4112.8112.822872311288.41098.801097.890.910.081098.35109812.82

    1993123812.68907.6324.9112.2112.729392998324.91237.871237.330.540.041237.60123812.68

    1994138411.811010.9363.3111.4111.839234044363.31384.171383.330.840.061383.75138411.81

    199515189.711105.1398.6109.3109.748545046398.61518.671517.511.150.081518.0915189.71

    199616538.881198.5433.9108.4108.955765846433.91653.161652.570.590.041652.8716538.88

    199717888.191291.2469.4107.7108.260546420469.41788.411788.080.330.021788.2517888.19

    199819106.811378.5501.4106.8106.863086796501.41910.331909.670.660.031910.0019106.81

    199920386.691464.5534.9106.2106.765517159534.92037.972037.620.350.022037.7920386.69

    200021937.601568.4575.5107.1107.670867858575.52192.662192.480.170.012192.5721937.60

    200123577.501673.5618.7106.7107.576518622618.72357.252356.920.330.012357.0823577.50

    200225558.381800.7670.4107.6108.482149398670.42554.222554.90-0.67-0.032554.5625558.38

    200327939.331959.2733.1108.8109.3911110542733.12793.112792.500.610.022792.8127939.33

    200430569.412131.6802.2108.8109.41056112336802.23056.383055.001.380.053055.6930569.41

    200533529.70880.7109.814103878.93348.613354.39-5.78-0.173351.5033529.70

    2006370710.59972.9110.516084972.93706.753706.600.150.003706.67370710.59

    197819522006

    51978

    7

    8

    9

    &L&F--&A&R&N--&P

  • Chart2

    1511.4719961065

    1589.6838115862

    1631.4237053896

    1908.6702201029

    2240.4783804689

    2066.3249431224

    4338.3372257825

    10025.2073112084

    -19799.8016322202

    9927.768960409

    914.1585297442

    1079.5778561356

    1780.0846693274

    2313.4650128609

    2965.4866439836

    2237.5020939667

    1976.6302651428

    2442.0394341048

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    4320.0320327952

    4334.0716400886

    5089.3359590828

    6152.4882566286

    7710.5909705518

    8580.1041876453

    9940.8039306236

    12128.5

    12569.422997416

    12621.9140446504

    9995.501369549

    9782.3631221806

    12969.1215410108

    15622.523491063

    17865.6509499013

    17267.3103945652

    17201.8655239859

    20276.6284601606

    21499.3838531438

    21922.683709582

    26101.9557811037

    34654.7977699772

    46045.1130852818

    49992.8155855876

    57989.5910298825

    61546.2447204713

    65237.3001176491

    75647.8385523653

    90181.1469832906

    102107.698422065

    123789.176546697

    150105.186370859

    190524.255909792

    224882.118378867

    242969.524617997

    298358.854166667

    1952-2006

    1952-2006

    2007www.hujingbei.net

    () I II (

    1978,1978,%%%%%1978,1978,1978,1978,%

    MN 1949-2004 20052007105E=D/10 1949-2004 2005200772 1949-2004 2005200772H=G/F*1002007721977J=H/E 1978 JI/E"OL=J*KM=L N={[(L(t+1)-L(t)]/L(t)}*100

    ABCDEFGHIJKLMN

    1952151120.002.00692.2153.722.2011.10136.141511.471511

    195315905.1723.002.30834.3198.323.7710.33153.831589.6815905.17

    195416312.6324.792.48878.3226.925.8310.42156.551631.4216312.63

    1955190916.9920.322.03934.9221.523.6911.66163.701908.67190916.99

    1956224017.3820.502.051034.2257.624.9112.15184.402240.48224017.38

    19572066-7.7723.232.321101.9280.025.4110.94188.902066.322066-7.77

    19584338109.9517.241.721291.2432.033.4619.41223.554338.344338109.95

    195910025131.0810.191.021451.3621.742.8442.04238.4810025.2110025131.08

    1960-19800-297.50-4.57-0.461508.0575.038.13-83.44237.31-19799.80-19800-297.50

    19619928-150.143.780.381275.2274.621.5356.97174.279927.779928-150.14

    1962914-90.7926.992.701176.4178.115.145.61162.97914.16914-90.79

    1963108018.1033.333.331293.1265.320.526.16175.381079.58108018.10

    1964178064.8927.642.761441.8350.324.308.79202.511780.08178064.89

    1965231329.9628.382.841629.2462.128.369.99231.482313.47231329.96

    1966296528.1826.222.621827.3569.831.1811.89249.352965.49296528.18

    19672238-24.5525.532.551707.7425.724.939.76229.152237.502238-24.55

    19681977-11.6627.382.741708.7432.225.299.24213.961976.631977-11.66

    1969244223.5526.082.611857.7485.926.1610.03243.492442.04244223.55

    1970369451.2825.832.582207.0744.933.7513.07282.723694.26369451.28

    1971432016.9423.332.332392.5819.034.2314.67294.424320.03432016.94

    197243340.3222.162.222453.8791.132.2414.55297.904334.0743340.32

    1973508917.4320.892.092669.6903.533.8416.20314.145089.34508917.43

    1974615220.8917.481.752738.7936.134.1819.55314.646152.49615220.89

    1975771125.3215.691.572950.41062.336.0122.95336.007710.59771125.32

    1976858011.2812.661.272968.3990.133.3626.35325.658580.10858011.28

    1977994115.8612.061.213166.01098.134.6828.76345.659940.80994115.86

    19781212922.0112.001.203605.61377.938.238.231.8338112128.501212922.01

    1979125693.6411.611.164074.01474.236.1936.131.09404.2412569.42125693.64

    1980126220.4211.871.194551.31590.034.9434.829.32430.5212621.91126220.42

    19819996-20.8114.551.464901.41581.032.2632.522.34447.499995.509996-20.81

    19829782-2.1315.681.575489.21760.232.0731.920.34480.849782.369782-2.13

    19831296932.5813.291.336076.32005.033.0032.824.68525.4912969.121296932.58

    19841562320.4613.081.317164.42468.634.4634.226.15597.4915622.521562320.46

    19851786614.3614.261.438792.13386.038.5138.126.72668.6717865.651786614.36

    198617267-3.3515.571.5610132.83846.037.9637.524.08716.9417267.3117267-3.35

    198717202-0.3816.611.6611784.74322.036.6736.321.85787.1217201.8717202-0.38

    19882027717.8715.731.5714704.05495.037.3737.023.52862.0320276.632027717.87

    1989214996.0315.041.5016466.06095.037.0236.624.34883.4721499.38214996.03

    1990219231.9714.391.4418319.56444.035.1834.924.25903.9221922.68219231.97

    19912610219.0612.981.3021280.47517.035.3234.826.81973.5726101.962610219.06

    19923465532.7711.601.1625863.79636.037.2636.631.551098.3534654.803465532.77

    19934604532.8711.451.1534500.714998.043.4742.637.211237.6046045.114604532.87

    1994499938.5711.211.1246690.719260.641.2540.536.131383.7549992.82499938.57

    19955799016.0010.551.0658510.523877.040.8140.338.201518.0957989.595799016.00

    1996615466.1310.421.0468330.426867.239.3238.837.241652.8761546.24615466.13

    1997652376.0010.061.0174894.228457.638.0036.736.481788.2565237.30652376.00

    19987564815.969.140.9179003.329545.937.4036.239.611910.0075647.847564815.96

    19999018119.218.180.8282673.130701.637.1436.244.252037.7990181.159018119.21

    200010210813.237.580.7689340.932499.836.3835.346.572192.57102107.7010210813.23

    200112378921.236.950.7098592.937460.838.0036.552.522357.08123789.1812378921.23

    200215010521.266.450.65107897.642304.939.2137.958.762554.56150105.1915010521.26

    200319052426.936.010.60121730.351554.742.3541.068.222792.81190524.2619052426.93

    200422488218.035.870.59142394.262875.344.1643.273.593055.69224882.1222488218.03

    20052429808.045.890.59188692.180646.342.742.772.503351.50242969.522429808.04

    200629835922.805.280.53221170.594103.242.542.580.493706.67298358.8529835922.80

    ///[/(]

    [//]/

    197819522006

    6

    7

    8

    &L&F--&A&R&N--&P

    &L&F--&A&R&N--&P

    1511.4719961065

    1589.6838115862

    1631.4237053896

    1908.6702201029

    2240.4783804689

    2066.3249431224

    4338.3372257825

    10025.2073112084

    -19799.8016322202

    9927.768960409

    914.1585297442

    1079.5778561356

    1780.0846693274

    2313.4650128609

    2965.4866439836

    2237.5020939667

    1976.6302651428

    2442.0394341048

    3694.2629673185

    4320.0320327952

    4334.0716400886

    5089.3359590828

    6152.4882566286

    7710.5909705518

    8580.1041876453

    9940.8039306236

    12128.5

    12569.422997416

    12621.9140446504

    9995.501369549

    9782.3631221806

    12969.1215410108

    15622.523491063

    17865.6509499013

    17267.3103945652

    17201.8655239859

    20276.6284601606

    21499.3838531438

    21922.683709582

    26101.9557811037

    34654.7977699772

    46045.1130852818

    49992.8155855876

    57989.5910298825

    61546.2447204713

    65237.3001176491

    75647.8385523653

    90181.1469832906

    102107.698422065

    123789.176546697

    150105.186370859

    190524.255909792

    224882.118378867

    242969.524617997

    298358.854166667

    1952-2006

    1952-2006

    Sheet1

    Sheet1

    136.1406526617

    153.8289646603

    156.5494990242

    163.6990014803

    184.3967631683

    188.9000094844

    223.54776872

    238.4755582242

    237.3069929331

    174.2694388129

    162.9729387289

    175.3816466336

    202.5086518618

    231.480152578

    249.3538448265

    229.1512303955

    213.9636221894

    243.4943799294

    282.720025598

    294.4216556475

    297.9021375153

    314.1359189411

    314.640365779

    336.003906652

    325.6529365458

    345.6510136116

    381

    404.241

    430.5233325

    447.4909074675

    480.8384130276

    525.4866624391

    597.4930036933

    668.6723951328

    716.9387275823

    787.1156648854

    862.0307180495

    883.4719485008

    903.9181048163

    973.5729483871

    1098.3487817807

    1237.5975230668

    1383.7517597887

    1518.0897899882

    1652.8656442972

    1788.2486081296

    1910.0034374824

    2037.7949787937

    2192.567575182

    2357.0815808207

    2554.5605596096

    2792.8067756533

    3055.6898955647

    3351.5

    3706.67

    GDP1978

    GDP 1952-20061978

    2007www.hujingbei.net

    ()()()() I II ()III() IV() IIIIVIIIIVV() VI () VI

    1978,1978,%1952100197810010010019781001978,1978,1978,1978%1978,1978,1978%

    PQ1949-20042007601949-20042007591949-2004200757K=J*381/1001977L=100*L(t+1)/F(t+1) 1979 LG(t)*L(t-1)/100M=K-LN=[(K-L)/K]*100O=(K+L)/2P=O Q={[(O(t+1)-O(t)]/O(t)}*100

    BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ

    1952136100.011935.65135.83136.26-0.44-0.32136.05136

    195315412.99113.1113.114240.32153.54154.11-0.57-0.37153.8315412.99

    19541571.77115.1101.814441.03156.21156.89-0.68-0.43156.551571.77

    19551644.57120.3104.515042.89163.45163.95-0.50-0.31163.701644.57

    195618412.64135.6112.716548.34184.02184.77-0.75-0.41184.4018412.64

    19571892.44138.9102.416849.52188.60189.21-0.61-0.32188.901892.44

    195822418.34164.3118.320058.57223.27223.83-0.56-0.25223.5522418.34

    19592386.68175.3106.721662.50238.13238.83-0.70-0.29238.482386.68

    1960237-0.49174.599.521862.21236.98237.63-0.65-0.27237.31237-0.49

    1961174-26.56128.173.418545.67174.12174.42-0.30-0.18174.27174-26.56

    1962163-6.48119.993.617342.75162.69163.26-0.57-0.35162.97163-6.48

    19631757.61129.0107.518145.99175.26175.50-0.24-0.14175.381757.61

    196420315.47149.0115.520853.12202.31202.71-0.40-0.20202.5120315.47

    196523114.31170.3114.324060.71231.27231.69-0.43-0.18231.4823114.31

    19662497.72183.4107.725465.38249.17249.53-0.36-0.14249.352497.72

    1967229-8.10168.691.923560.11228.98229.32-0.34-0.15229.15229-8.10

    1968214-6.63157.593.422256.15213.74214.19-0.45-0.21213.96214-6.63

    196924313.80179.1113.724363.85243.46243.53-0.07-0.03243.4924313.80

    197028316.11208.1116.127574.19282.70282.74-0.04-0.01282.7228316.11

    19712944.14216.7104.128877.25294.51294.330.180.06294.422944.14

    19722981.18219.4101.229278.22297.94297.860.080.03297.902981.18

    19733145.45231.3105.430982.46314.33313.950.380.12314.143145.45

    19743150.16231.8100.231082.64314.71314.570.130.04314.643150.16

    19753366.79247.5106.832788.24336.04335.970.080.02336.003366.79

    1976326-3.08239.896.931685.49325.76325.550.200.06325.65326-3.08

    19773466.14254.5106.233990.73345.57345.74-0.17-0.05345.653466.14

    197838110.23280.5100.0110.2110.2379381100.038138100.0038138110.23

    19794046.10297.7106.1106.1106.1417419106.1404.24404.2400.00404.244046.10

    19804316.50317.1113.0106.5106.5460463113.0430.53430.520.010.00430.524316.50

    19814473.94329.4117.5103.9103.9489492117.5447.68447.310.370.08447.494473.94

    19824817.45354.0126.2107.5107.5525528126.2480.82480.85-0.03-0.01480.844817.45

    19835259.29386.8137.9109.3109.3580583137.9525.40525.57-0.18-0.03525.495259.29

    198459713.70439.7156.8113.7113.7692695156.8597.41597.58-0.17-0.03597.4959713.70

    198566911.91492.2175.5111.9111.9853858175.5668.66668.69-0.03-0.01668.6766911.91

    19867177.22527.8188.2107.2107.2956963188.2717.04716.840.210.03716.947177.22

    19877879.79579.6206.6109.8109.811041112206.6787.15787.090.060.01787.127879.79

    19888629.52634.6226.3109.5109.513551366226.3862.20861.860.340.04862.038629.52

    19898832.49650.4231.9102.5102.515121519231.9883.54883.400.130.02883.478832.49

    19909042.31665.5237.3102.3102.316341644237.3904.11903.720.390.04903.929042.31

    19919747.71716.7255.6107.7107.718791893255.6973.84973.310.530.05973.579747.71

    1992109812.82808.8288.4112.8112.822872311288.41098.801097.890.910.081098.35109812.82

    1993123812.68907.6324.9112.2112.729392998324.91237.871237.330.540.041237.60123812.68

    1994138411.811010.9363.3111.4111.839234044363.31384.171383.330.840.061383.75138411.81

    199515189.711105.1398.6109.3109.748545046398.61518.671517.511.150.081518.0915189.71

    199616538.881198.5433.9108.4108.955765846433.91653.161652.570.590.041652.8716538.88

    199717888.191291.2469.4107.7108.260546420469.41788.411788.080.330.021788.2517888.19

    199819106.811378.5501.4106.8106.863086796501.41910.331909.670.660.031910.0019106.81

    199920386.691464.5534.9106.2106.765517159534.92037.972037.620.350.022037.7920386.69

    200021937.601568.4575.5107.1107.670867858575.52192.662192.480.170.012192.5721937.60

    200123577.501673.5618.7106.7107.576518622618.72357.252356.920.330.012357.0823577.50

    200225558.381800.7670.4107.6108.482149398670.42554.222554.90-0.67-0.032554.5625558.38

    200327939.331959.2733.1108.8109.3911110542733.12793.112792.500.610.022792.8127939.33

    200430569.412131.6802.2108.8109.41056112336802.23056.383055.001.380.053055.6930569.41

    200533529.70880.7109.814103878.93348.613354.39-5.78-0.173351.5033529.70

    2006370710.59972.9110.516084972.93706.753706.600.150.003706.67370710.59

    197819522006

    51978

    7

    8

    9

    &L&F--&A&R&N--&P

  • Einkommensverteilung Abweichung von dem BIP pro Kopf

    Gesamt-Gini-Koeffizienten in der Mitte 1990er Daten aus dem Weltentwicklungsbericht 2003

  • Gini-Indexin der Mitte 1990er, WDR 2003Albania 35.3 Pakistan 31.2Australia 35.2 Peru 46.2Austria 31.0 Philippines 46.2Bangladesh 33.6 Poland 31.6Brazil 60.7 Russia 48.7Central Af. Rep. 61.3 South Af. 59.3China 40.3 Sweden 25.0Germany 30.0 Thailand 41.4India 37.8 UK 36.8Japan 24.9 US 40.8Korea, R. 31.6 Venezuela 49.5

  • Prozentualer Anteil am Einkommen Unterste 10 % Oberste 10% der Bev Austria 2.5 22.5Bangladesh 3.9 28.6Brazil 0.7 48.0China 2.4 30.4Germany 3.3 23.7India 3.5 33.5Japan 4.8 21.7Korea, R. 2.9 24.3Pakistan 4.1 27.6Poland 3.2 24.7Russia 1.7 38.7UK 2.3 27.7US 1.8 30.5Venezuela 0.8 36.5 in der Mitte 1990er, WDR 2003

  • Realindikatoren Umweltindikator als neuer Messstab

    Im allgemeinen, sind die Reihefolgerung nach Wert- und Realindikatoren trendgemaessig fast gleich.

  • Einige Realindikatoren Lebenserwartung Analphabeten Kohlendioxidermis. 2000 % in ab 15 J. Mio. T, 1998Austria 78 -- 63.9Bangladesh 61 59 23.4Brazil 68 15 299.6China 70 16 3108.0Germany 77 -- 825.2India 63 43 1061.0Japan 81 -- 1133.5 Korea, R. 73 2 363.7 Pakistan 63 57 97.1Poland 73 0 321.7Russia 65 0 1434.6UK 77 -- 542.3US 77 -- 5447.6Venezuela 73 7 155.4 WDR 2003

  • Fragestellungen aus den Tatsachen der Wirtschaftsentwicklungen 1) Warum sind manche Laender reicher und manche aermer?2) Warum wachsen manche Laender schneller und manche langsamer3) Warum das Kapital nicht in die Laender fliegen, wo es am knappsten und dessen Rentabilitaet am hoechsten ist?4)Warum Laender, die arm sind und deren Wachstum langsamer ist, moechten von wirtschaftlich besseren Laendern nicht lernen?

  • Hauptlehren aus den wirtschaftlichen besseren Laendern: 1) Markt und wirtschaftliche Freiheit 2) Eigentumsrechte 3) Konkurrenz 4) Starker Staat 5) unbestechbares Beamtentum 6) Anschluss am Weltmarkt 7) Produktionsorientierung 8) Preisstabilitaet

  • VWL, die diese achten Lehren studiert and glaubwuertig macht and darstellt

    Es gibt oekonomische Theorien, die gegen eine oder mehreren dieser Lehren vorgehen, die normalerweise am Rande der theoretischen Entwicklung der Okonomik stehen.

  • Mikrooekonomik: Theorien zu erklaeren, wie individuelle Bestreben nach Reichtum zu einer ordnungsmaessigen Marktwirtschaft fuehren kann. Sie beschaeftigt sich meistens mit den Lehren 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.Hauptbereiche der Mikro Eigentum Preise Equilibrium Regulation

  • Makrooekonomik: Theorien zu erklaeren Gesamtwirtschaftliches Geschehen, ohne genauer an die makrooekonomischen Grundlage zu wenden. Sie beschaeftigt sich meistens mit den Lehren 4, 6, 7, 8.Hauptbereiche der Makro Wachstum Konjunktur Preistabilitaet Aussenwirtschaftliches Gleichgewicht

  • Vielen Dank

    Prof.Dr. Jingbei Huwww.hujingbei.netjbeihu@mail.tongji.edu.cn