An Anthology of Byzantine Prose - N. G. Wilson

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KLBINB TEXTE FOR VORLBSUNGEN U ND OBUNGBN BBCJlONOBT VON HANS LlBTZWANN HBJlAUSCBGBBBN VON JCUJlT ALANO 189 AN ANTHOLOGY OF BYZANTINE PROSE BY N I GEL G. WI LSON WALTER DE GRUYTER BERLIN NEW YORK 1971 KLEINB TEXTE FOR VORLESUNGEN UND 0BUNGEN BEGRONDET VON HANS LIBTZMANN HBRAUSGEGEBEN VON KURT ALAND 189 AN ANTHOLOGY OF BYZANTINE PROSE BY NIGEL G. WILSON \\'ALTER DE GR UYTER BERLIN NEW YORK 1971 ISBN 3 11 001898 5 1971 b1 Waiter de Gm,tet & Co., -.orma1a G. J. J. Gaucmas, Vcrlagobnchbwndbmg- Gcoq Relmu -Kad J. TtllbGer- Vclt & Comp. Bcrlla. 30 Allc Rcchtc, imbc.......W.. du dcr 'Obc:ractzuag lA fraDdc SPftCbco. Ohac aUidztJcldicbe Geachmisuag des V crlaga bt eo aach Dlcht gcat11UCt, diaca Bach oclcr Tcllc daraua auf pbotomcchaniKbcm Wcgc (Photoi:Dplc, Milaokoplc) Z1l (Prlaud ill Gamlm1) Satz uad Druck: Waiter de Gm,tet & Co., Bcrlla. What numbers of fine writers in the later empire of Rome, when refinement was carried to the highest pitch, have missed that fame and immortality which they had fondly arrogated to themselves? How many Greek authors, who wrote at that period when Constantinople was the refined mistress of the empire, now rest either not printed, or not read, in the libraries of Europe? GOLDSMITH The citizen of the world. Introduction . Abbreviations CONTENTS Cosmas Indicopleustes . Procopius .. . Agathias ... . Ioannes Malalas Ioannes Moschos Theophanes the confessor Methodios ...... . Photius . . . . . . . . . Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Ioannes Mauropous Michael Psellos Cecaumenos . . Anna Comnena Eustathius . . Michael Choniates . Timarion .... Georgios Acropolites Theodoros Lascaris . Maximos Planudes Theodoros Metochites Nicephorus Gregoras Manuel II Bessarion Ducas .. Page 1 5 6 11 22 26 28 32 36 40 63 68 68 83 87 98 108 111 . . . 121 123 . 126 130 .. 136 . 142 146 .. 162 INTRODUCTION This book is intended for students and scholars who would like to learn about the Byzantine world from primary sources. It has been designed mainly for those who already know some classical Greek, but I hope that it may also tempt medieval historians and students of modern Greek literature to make their first direct acquaintance with an unusually fascinating period of history. My object has been to select from prose writers a number of representative extracts which will give a general picture of Byzantine life and culture. The only existing anthology of this kind is a little book by G. Soyter, Byzantinische Ge-schichtsschreiber, Heidelberg 1929, which seems to me too short and limited in scope to be satisfactory. The task of an anthologist is not easy. Byzantine literature is so vast in bulk - Migne's Patrologia Graeca consists of a hundred and sixty one volumes-that no one can read more than a fraction of it, and consequently no fully representative selection can be compiled without exceeding the limits of space that must be observed in a book designed as an introduc-tion. In order to stay within these limits I had to take difficult decisions. The most practicable solution led to two restrictions in the choice of passages. The first is chronological: following the example of Beck and Krumbacher I have assumed that Byzantine literature began in the reign of Justinian. As a result some authors of the fourth and fifth centuries who are important in themselves and were influential in Byzantium have been left out. The writings of John Chrysostom, the Cappadocian Fathers and Athanasius' Life of St. Antony are the most obvious omissions. The second restriction is that, whereas nothing has been done to obscure or minimise the pervasive influence of the church in every sphere of life, some kinds of theological literature, especially sermons, mys-1 Wilson 2 INTRODUCTION ticism and philosophical theology, have been excluded. This may be thought a shortcoming, particularly in view of the emphasis given to matters connected with the survival and study of classical antiquity throughout the book. Perhaps! should anticipate criticism by saying that the decision, though not easy or welcome, seemed justifiable on two grounds. My purpose has been not so much to give examples of every class of prose writing as to offer a panorama of Byzantine life. In addition it is a tenable proposition that the Byzantine contribu-tion to theology is less important for the history of European culture than the preservation and study of classical Greek texts. In the selection here offered to the reader the historians claim the lion's share. That is only to be expected. Although they mostly set to work with the narrow aim of writing military and political history, they permitted themselves digressions from the main theme which are admirably suited for inclusion here. There is also little doubt that the historians are the best writers of medieval Greece. Only their works can stand the test of being translated into a modern language for the benefit of a wider audience than professional scholars. Of the other literary forms the letter is best represented, and throughout the period it was practised with success by school-masters, bishops, statesmen and even emperors. The absence of two authors requires explanation. The story of Barlaam and Joasaph, usually ascribed to St. John Damascene, has been omitted, since I am inclined to share the view of D. M. Lang, BSOAS 17. 2. 1955. 312---8, that it is a translation from the Ge9rgian and not an original work of Byzantine literature. And there is no specimen from the works of Plethon. This is deliberate, since the proper appraisal of his philosophical position is not yet agreed among scholars. I suspect that the revolutionary nature of his ideas has been exaggerated, and would refer the reader to E. Wind, The pagan mysteries of the Renaissance, second edition, Penguin Books 1967, 244-6. His economic ideas, however, designed to strengthen the Morea, are reflected in the extract given from Bessarion's letter. INTRODUCTION 3 Most Byzantine prose was written with the object of imitating the language and style of the great Athenian writers of the fifth and fourth centuries B. C. The historians for example attempted frequently and with varying degrees of success to model their style on that of Thucydides. But that did not prevent them from borrowing Ionic expressions from Herodotus, who was also read and respected as a model. Most writers permitted themselves to use the vocabulary of the Septuagint and New Testament, and few could resist the temptation of drawing on the large additional resources of vocabulary offered by Hellenistic Greek. This modified or impure Atticism lasted as long as the empire, and led to excesses of virtuosity that were scarcely equalled by the most dedicated practitioners of Ciceronianism in the Italian Renaissance. Even when allowance is made for the slow pace of linguistic change in Greek, this degree of archaism limited freedom of expression so much that the result could not often be more than mediocrity of literary achievement. Gibbon roundly condemned Byzantine literature: 'Not a single composition of history, philosophy or literature has been saved from oblivion by the intrinsic beauties of style or sentiment, of original fancy or even of successful imitation. In prose the least offensive of the Byzantine writers are absolved from censure by their naked and unpresuming simplicity; but the orators, most eloquent in their own conceit, are the furthest removed from the models they affect to emulate'. The highest praise that a Byzantine author is likely to receive from a critic is that he writes a smooth pastiche, so as not to offend the reader by linguistic incongruity, and at the same time offers thought or narrative worthy of attention. Yet it is hard to withhold a certain admiration for a man who handles the classical language a millennium after its maturity as well as Procopius does. The development of the Greek language and the importance of Atticism are described by R. Browning, Medieval and modern Greek, London 1969, especially chapters 2--4. Advanced students may like to consult G. Bohlig, Unter-suchungen zum rhetorischen Sprachgebrauch der Byzantiner, 4 INTRODUCTION Berlin 1956, 1-17, who shows that authorities did not always agree in their definition of strict Attic practice. In the commentary a large proportion of the notes are linguistic, because it is important to show in detail how the Byzantine authors deviated from the usage of their models and what the components of their vocabulary are; the closer the superficial resemblance to classical Greek the more necessary it becomes to note the differences. Learned allusions to classical authors are traced wherever possible; the educated Byzantine reader was expected to be able to follow them. I have not assumed that the extracts will necessarily be read in the chronological order in which they are given, and for that reason notes are occasionally repeated. Byzantine Greek should be pronounced in the same way as the modern language. The accent had changed from pitch to stress by the fourth century, and most of the changes in the values of vowels and consonants were complete by the tenth century. A very important feature in late Greek prose is that writers attempt to follow a rule regulating the clausula; in each clause the last two stressed syllables should if possible be separated by an even number of unstressed syllables, usually two or four (P. Maas, Greek metre, Oxford 1962, 17 para. 23). The earliest practitioner of this type of rule is Himerius (Wilamowitz, Kleine Schriften IV 56ft.= Hermes 34. 1889. 216ff.). Different authors apply it in different ways, so that it can be employed as a criterion for assessing the authenticity of disputed works such as Procopius' Secret History (P. Maas, BZ 21. 1912-3. 52). In conclusion I record with pleasure my debt to two friends, who have helped to make this book less imperfect than it would otherwise have been. Prof. R. Kassel read the manuscript and suggested many improvements in the com-mentary. Dr. M. Winterbottom read a set of proofs and drew my attention to other points in need of correction. N.G.W. BSOAS BZ DOP EHR GRBS JHS JOBG LexPatrGr LSJ LXX OrChrPer ProcCambPhilSoc Pauly-Wissowa TAPA ABBREVIATIONS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies Byzantinische Zeitschrift Dumbarton Oaks Papers English Historical Review Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies Journal of Hellenic Studies Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen byzanti-nischen Gesellschaft A patristic Greek lexicon, by G. W. H. Lampe A Greek-English lexicon, by H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, H. Stuart J ones The Septuagint Orientalia Christiana Periodica Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, Realencyklopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Transactions of the American Philological Association COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES (fl. c. 520-550) Although the name and epithet are traditional, both are open to doubt. The name is found in only one of the three manuscripts, and was unknown to Photius in the ninth century; it could have been given to the author because of his description of the cosmos. As to his travels, it is clear that he was a merchant trading in the Red Sea and Ethiopia (see especially 2. 66), but what he says of India and Ceylon does not prove conclusively that he had been there himself. His work, the Christian Topography, is intended to refute Ptolemaic theories of geography and astronomy; the Bible is the only accurate source of knowledge; the world is shown to be shaped like the tabernacle of Moses. The combination of bigotry and naivete is unattractive but revealing. There are many digressions, which are often valuable sources for the history of trade between Byzantium and the Orient. The author arranged for his work to be profusely illustrated, and there is a fascinating series of miniatures in the manuscripts. Photius' summary and co=ents are printed below (pp. 000). The book's popularity in Byzantium is difficult to estimate, but translations of it were made into several Slavonic languages. Edition with French translation and commentary: W. Wolska-Conus, Paris 1968-, in progress(= Sources Chretiennes 141); for books V-XII text by E. 0. Winstedt, Cambridge 1909. yTr66ecns TlVES 'KO:l T'l')v 6e{a:v rpa:cpf}v IJ.T)5ev &XA.a Treplcppovovv-res Ka:l \rrrepcppovovv-res, Ka:-ra TOVS V elva:l TO OXflJ.lCX TOV ovpa:vov 5 b< T6>V 'liAlCX'K&>V 'KO:l O'eAT)VlCX'K6>V bV TrACXVOOIJ.EVOl. TrCXO'CXV To{vvv Tf\S Tf}v \nr66ea1v els TrEVTE 2 VOI.Itl;61JSVOt: i.e. Christians who are acquainted with Greek scientific theory. The polemic is directed at least in part against his contemporary John Philoponos, the commentator on Aristotle. 4 TOVs usually 'pagans'; here it may include heretics as well. 6 Titvre: there are now twelve books, the last seven being subsequent additions by the author. COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES 7 &p"'-oS{ws StetA.6"'-flV. TrpwTov mxVTwv TrPOs Tovs Kal o TrpwTos A.6yos 00s ov SvvaTov Tov chrayea6at Tij Trt6avij TWV 10 TrAcXVTJ, E-repa Tfis 6e{as fpa &"!T &Kpov yi)s eoos &Kpov yfls SEK-r6v ta-rtv, "'TapO: "'Tav-ros &vepoo"'Tov Kal "'TOO'flS f3aat:Aefas, o"'Tep hepc;x (3aat:Aefc;x o\Jx Vn-apxet -ro -rotoV-ro. 21 I Peter 5. 13. 22 -rrpoAftllllaTa: 'advantages'; Hellenistic. 27 SEKTov: 'acceptable'; first in the LXX. PROCOPIUS (b. c. 500) Of all Byzantine historians Procopius is the best from a stylistic point of view (within his self-imposed limits), and he is equal to any of his rivals in the interest of the story he has to recount. Having become a staff officer or private secretary to Belisarius at an early age, he accompanied him on his campaigns in Persia, Africa and Italy (627-40), as a result of which the territories of the Roman empire were very greatly extended for a short while. His main work, a history of the wars of Justinian in eight books, has all the advantages that would be expected in an eye-witness account; for modern taste its one failing is the inclusion of numerous speeches in the manner of Thucydides. There are many interesting digressions, including one on the Nika riots of 632. Since Procopius possessed great linguistic ability as well as intellectual curiosity (he knew Syriac and Latin, and very probably Gothic, Armenian and Persian), the accounts he gives of the various races he came into contact with are sources of unique value for the early history of central and northern Europe; where modern research is able to verify his statements they are found to be accurate (see R. Benedicty, JOBG 14.1966. 61-78). At much the same time as he was writing the history which treats Belisarius as a hero and is no more than moderately critical of imperial policy, Procopius composed his Secret History, a ferocious invective against Justinian and his wife Theodora, which has enjoyed a certain notoriety ever since Gibbon relegated some of the more scabrous passages about Theodora to his footnotes, saying 'her murmurs, her pleasures and her arts must be veiled in the obscurity of a learned language'. It is not known what provoked Procopius to this apparently schizophreD.ic state of mind. There is also a monograph on various buildings constructed in Justinian's reign, which describes elegantly and with much praise of the emperor such monuments as Hagia Sophia. Editions: J. Haury, Teubner 1905-13, reprinted with additions 1963--4; H. B. Dewing and G. Downey, Loeb series. English translation of the Secret History by G. A. Williamson, Penguin books 1966. On P. in general see B. Rubin's article in Pauly-Wissowa. See also P. N. Ure, Justinian and his age, Penguin books 1961. For an interesting note on P. 's account of England see A. R. Burn, EHR 70. 1965. 268-61. 12 PROCOPIUS History 1. 1. 1-5 Proem TlpoK6'Tt'tOS Kcoacxprus 'TOVs 'Tt'Oi\t!Jovs ovs 'Iovcrrtvtcxvbs 6 pc.o!Jcx{c.ov (3cxatAe\Js 'Tt'pos (3cxp(3apovs Snivcyt KaKc;'> irp6cpaa{v -r1va ii :A6y el'Treiv ii 10 SlaVO{opos rn11TveVO'E1E. TT6:vrex Te \nrepcbq>61') 'TOTE 'TCx 1Tepl TCxS 'Texq>Cxs VOJ.l1J.lex. oV'Te yap 1TexpCX1TeJ.l1TOJ.levo1 15 vev6J.11crrex1 ol veKpol oV'Te KCX'Tex\l}cxAAOJ.,lE\101 i51Tep eloo6e1, aAA lKexV0\1 i'j V el q>epoov T1S rnl 40 T00\1 OOJ.lOOV 'T00\1 TETEAevTT}KOT00\1 T1\1Cx ES TE 'Tfls 1TOAeOOS TCx rn16cxA6:aa1ex tA6oov epp1\I}EV, ov Si} 'Texis OKCxT01S lJJ(3cxAA6JJEV01 aoopT)Sov EIJEAAOV 01TT} 1TexpCX'TVxo1 'TOTe Kexl 'TOV Si)JJov oao1 crrexa1ooTex1 1Tp6TEpov i'jaexv, i)(6ovs 'TOV ls &AAi}Aovs aq>EJ.lE\101 'Ti;S TE oa{exs 'T00\1 K01Vij ElrEJ.lEAOVTO 45 Kexi q>EpOVTES a\rrol 'TOVS o\J 1Tpoaf}KOVTexS aq>{a1 YeKpOVs E6CX1T'TOV. &XA.a Kexl oao1 1Tp6:yJJexa1 Ta 1Tprnpex 1Texp1crr6:JJEvo1 exlaxpois TE Kexl 1TOVT)pois i){ex1pov, oiSe -ri}v ts -ri}v S{ex1'Texv ernoae1a6:J.,lEvo1 1TexpexvoJJ{exv -ri}v e6aef3e1exv &Kp1(3oos i\aKovv, o\J -rl}v aooq>poa-VVT)v J.lETexJJcx6oVTEs o6Se 'Ti;s &pe'Ti;s lpexcrrex{ 'T1VES tK 'TOV exlq>v1S{ov 50 yeyEVT)JJE\101. rnel 'TOiS &v6poo1T01S oaex lJJ1TEit'T}ye q>VO"e1 ;; ' xp6vov J.lCXKpov S1SexaKcxA{ee'Aei yeyevfjaeee1 i1S11 \rneT61Teeaeev, Cm: Tov KCXKov m- &AA.ovs &vepoo"'T00\1 T1\/Ccs KE)(OOP11K6TOS, &y)({o-rpoq>0\1 cniEhs Tfis YVOOJ.111S Tl)v rnl TCx xe{poo 1TE"'T01flllE\101 ii 60 1Tp6TEpov Tl)v TW\1 &To"'T{eev aq>O:s c:xVTovs Tfj Te "'TO\/Tlp{cte Keel Tfj &i\A1J \IE\11K11KOTES. rnel Keel a\1 T1S OV TCx 'f'EVSfi ei1To1 oos T) v6aos f)Se ehe TVx'IJ Ttvl eiTE 1Tpovo{c;c TO &Kp1!3es TOVS "'TO\/TlPOTCxTOVS &q>fiKE\1. &i\AO: TcxVTee Tc;:> 65 &iroSeSe1KTee1 T6Te Se T1\lee ovK eV"'TETes eTvee1 ev ye tSeiv, OM oiKo1 &ireeVTES, oao1s TO ii TOVS \IOO"OV\/TeeS reepemevov, ii TOVS TETEAeVTflKOTeeS rep{JVOV\1. i')v Se T1S Keel 1Tpoi6VT1 T1\ll 70 iaxvo-ev, oSe TW\1 T1\lee \IEKpwv eq>epev. TE TlPYE1 Keel TCxS Texvees ol TSX\IiTee1 ern6:aees, epyee TE &AA.ee oaee s..; EKeeO'T01 xepalv eTxov. 1TOAe1 yov\1 ayee6ois &rree0'1\l &Texvws eV&r)\IOVO"'IJ A11l6s T1S &Kp1J3i)s Ci:pT0\1 CxJ.1EAe1 ii &AA.o OT10V\I S1eepK6)s ExE1\I xeeAe"'T6v TE 75 Keel A.6yov 'TTOi\i\ov eTvee1" ooo-re Keel TW\1 \/OO"OV\/T00\1 T10"l\l cS:oopov \lee1 SoKEi\1 ernop{cte TW\1 O:vcxyKee{oo\1 T1) \1 TOV J3{ov KCXTeeo-rpoq>{J\1. Keei TO el"'TEi\1, OVK i'jv T1\lee To 1Teeperneev tSeiv, &i\Aoos Te T)v{Kee J3eea1A.ei voafjaee1 {Keel c:xVTc;:> yap !3ovJ3wvee 80 rnfjp6ee1, &i\i\ 1T6'Ae1 j3eea1'Ae{eev Tfis PooJ.lee{oov &pxiis lllCxT1ee tS1ooT&v &rree\I"Tes 'liavxfi eJ.1evov. Ta !le" Tc;:> ev Te Tfj &i\A1J Poo- yfj Keel TcxVT1J 1TTl eaxev. rnEO"KTli.J'E Se Keel Tl)v Tiepaw\1 yfiv Keel J3eepJ3apovs TOVS &AA.ovs crnee\/Tcxs. 77 'formal dress', like the toga in Rome; not military uniform, the Attic meaning of the word. fvStSuaK61lfvov is not Attic, but found in the LXX and N. T. 82 with the dative ( = 1rEpl with the genitive) is not Attic usage. PROCOPIUS 19 8. 17. 1-7 The secret of silk 'Y-rro Toihov TCW xp6vov Tc;':>V TlVES J.lOVCX)(OOV rvsoov f}KOVTES, yv6VTes Te oos rovcrr1v1av4) S1a cnrovSfls ei11 TrpOS TlepCTOOV -ri}v ooveia6a1 pc.>J.la{OVS, yev6J.1EV01 oV.oo Sf) Ta CxJ.lcpl Tij S1o1tf.i KCXTCx 70 'TT this probably means that he belonged to the official guild of advocates: cf. St'KT'IY6pov in 12 below. ey- Reffel. 5 005 So"Keiv 'KT A. : this clause is typical of Byzan-tine affectation, with its dual and oxymoron 'to be united and divided by a single boundary'. 7 St011'TEVeo6at: 'to be overlooked'. 12 &-re Sfl 'KaTTly6pov L. 14 6 St: anacolouthon; perhaps an apodotic particle intended as an imitation of Herodotus' style. 15 Vn-epCf>ov: 'in the upper part of the building'. 18 lvStarn'liJaTa: 'rooms'. 20 TOO . Too St VbO: TO JJtv . TO St LWR. 21 Sta'KptSov: here 'in several places'. 24 OTEcpc!nn)v: 'rim'. 25 ls TO avaAoyovv: 'proportionately', a technical term from mathematics. 29 Tij J3vp171J TrEP1E)(61JEVOV should probably be transposed after Vm'Kcptpeaeoo (Keydell). AGATHIAS 25 80 T;KlCTTa Se -ra mbs Slappeiv Kal Vrm Aef]valS Kal o Se CXV.os (3aa1AEvs &1rellep1aev &1ro 'A V'Tloxe!as Tiis "ITPOO'TTJS Lvp{as AaoS{KElCXV Kal fa(3c:xAa Kal n6:i\'TOV 'TaS "ITOAelS, Kal &1ro 'A"ITa!lE!as Tfis SEVTepcxs Lvp!as Bc:xAaveas 1r6i\1v, Kcxl 1 cxV-r4>: 'this', as in the modern language. &vCXKooSIKEVcns: note the hybrid formation. Justinian directed the publication of a Codex in 529, then the Digest, begun in 530 and completed in 533, finally the second Codex in 634, since its predecessor was now out of date. 2 with the dative is often used to indicate motion towards a point. 4 none of the publications mentioned above was a single book, so Malalas must be referring to a set of laws designed to speed the administration of justice. 5 Athens was less famous than Beirut as a centre of legal study. Malalas records (p. 451) Justinian's edict of 629 prohibiting the teaching of law and philosophy at Athens (see A. D. E. Cameron, Proc Camb Phil Soc 195. 1969. 7-29). IOANNES MALALAS 27 rnO{flO'EV rna:pxfa:v, TJVTlVCX 9eo5oopta5a:, 5o\Js 10 a:V-rij Ka:l 5{Ka:tov. Tov Aa:o5tKe{a:s o\JK f}Aeveepooae Tov \moKeia6a:t Tef> lTCXTptapx1J Ti'js AVTtoxeoov lTOAEOOS . E V Tef> a:V-ref> XPOVCf> rncx6ev \mo v{a:s Tfis AVKia:s TO: Mvpa: Ka:l lToAA.O: Tois \moA.e1 6ec:hpef>. KO:l TCx TfiS TCXPCXXfiS .0VflVEx6fl T'f> a:V-r'f> f3a:atA.ei. Ka:l &ya:vCXIv, na-rept1V IJ.6VCA>v 6 Se rnl Tfis Tp(TT}s 45 xoopas 6 w 1TEVTaK6cna, Os lO"Tl V bcaTOVTaSlKOS apl61.16s. 6 Se rnl Tfis TETapTT}S 6 3 TETpaKlO")(iAla, Os lO"Tl XlAlaSliV Kal 6 Tphos Toao\JTCA>v bcaToVTaSCA>v, Kal 6 ThapTos XlAlaSCA>v, Kal OO"fl1Tep f) 1Toa6TT}s a\rrov Tov &p161.1ov ecrr1v. 65 'IO"Ttov Se Kal ToGTo, 00s l.lExPl Toov -reaaapCA>v O"fliJ.E(CA>v 1Tp6elO"lV &pl61J.Os OIJ.e((3CA>V TCxS olKE(as 6VOIJ.aa(as eha 1TaAlV ev T't> TO TOV 1TpcbTov Aal.l(36:vCA>v ovo1.1a, ov l.ltVTol CX".iTQs &AAO: crVV T't> apl61.l't> ov e\lp(aKETal EXCA>V, 1Tp6elO"l l.lExPl TOV 6yS6ov' ev a\nc;> TO TOV TeTapTOV Aal.l(36:VCA>V OVOIJ.a. Kal 70 oliTCA>s e9;s 1Tpo(3a(vel oTov rn) TOV 1Tpo-re6tVTos \nroSe(yiJ.aTOS CXVCA>6ev TO y O'T}IJ.a(vel Kal Svo, TO Se 9 evvevft-ITepas &AAa 51} Kal TOVVaVT{ov OVK &-rr1KOS. j.lETa yap -rT}v "'TPWTflV b

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